Category Archives: Homicide

The Tragedy of Sid and Nancy

               On the morning of October 12, 1978, employees at the Chelsea Hotel in Manhattan were called up to room 100. The initial reports called in by other guests at 7:30 AM about the room were in concern: a woman could be heard moaning presumably in pain from the room. At 10 AM, the inhabitant of the room called down for help himself (“Sid And Nancy: A Punk Rock Murder Mystery”). The occupant was ex-bassist of the broken up Sex Pistols, Sid Vicious. Upon investigating the call, workers find 20-year old Nancy Spungen dead from a single stab wound to the abdomen in the bathroom, clothed only in her underwear, and Vicious wandering the hall in an apparent drug induced haze. At the time, he was wailing that he had killed Spungen (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen came from different, yet somehow similar, backgrounds. Vicious was born to a single mother, Anne Beverly, who struggled with substance abuse just as her son would later in life (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”). He spent time in Ibiza, Kent, and London throughout his childhood and was used by his mother to smuggle marijuana between Spain and England. At 16, Vicious was kicked out by his mother (Maloney). Vicious played the drums for Souixsie, the Banshees, and Flowers of Romance before joining the Sex Pistols as their bassist in 1977, despite not knowing how to play the bass. By the mid-1970s, Sid Vicious was a fixture of the punk scene in Londo (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               Spungen was born in Philadelphia, PA, and reportedly suffered some form of brain trauma at birth. She is said to have been incredibly intelligent, but also a violent child. In one noted instance, she allegedly attempted to kill a babysitter with a pair of scissors (Maloney). Some sources report that she graduated high school at 16-years old (Shelton), while others report that she was expelled from school and diagnosed with schizophrenia at 15-years old (Maloney). Regardless, she is known to have attended the University of Colorado for a time, before either dropping out (Shelton) or being expelled after being arrested. She was arrested for possession of stolen property and either dealing to or buying marijuana from an undercover police officer (“Sid And Nancy: A Punk Rock Murder Mystery”)(Shelton). At the age of 17, Nancy Spungen ran away from home and to New York City, where she found work as a sex worker (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”)(“Sid And Nancy: A Punk Rock Murder Mystery”). She found her way to London in early 1977 and became a well-known groupie, though she was unliked by many other groupies of the time. She was known to have been loud and obnoxious, only tolerated by the musicians because of her ability to obtain drugs for them. She met Vicious after her initial attempt at gaining Sex Pistols front man Johnny Rotten’s attention and being spurned. She turned her eyes to Vicious, and their lives were set from there(“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               The two quickly became inseparable. Where Sid went, Nancy followed, and if Nancy was there, Sid was never far behind. Compared to Nancy, who was more experienced in both sex and drugs and was known for her loud behavior, Sid was shy. He seemed interested in what she knew about the world, while she was looking for the kind of affection he offered her. They moved into a loft in West London together, where they could fall further and further into their substance abuse. Their relationship was a frustration to the rest of the band and their management. Spungen’s behavior and personality was grating to the other members of the band, to the extent that they banned her from their US tour in 1978. The band’s management even admitted to trying to have her “kidnapped” and sent back to New York City at one point, which was impossible to do thanks to the inseparable nature of the couple. During the tour in 1978, Vicious’s behavior was even more erratic than before, likely in retaliation for Spungen’s banning from the tour. He went as far as breaking his bass over a fan’s head during this time, and the band broke up during the tour. After the band broke up, Vicious went on a spree that ended with an overdose that landed him in a hospital in Queens, New York City. Spungen reunited with him after his discharge and the two moved to Paris, France, to take part in a mockumentary on the Sex Pistols, The Great Rock ‘N’ Roll Swindle. Spungen’s presence turned out to be detrimental to the production, as the two rarely left their room, Spungen faking a suicide attempt on one of the rare occasions Vicious did go to set (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               Eventually, this turbulent and dependent relationship was likely destined to end in tragedy. The end began in August of 1978, when the couple moved into Manhattan’s Chelsea Hotel. From room 100, Spungen acted as Vicious new manager and the two lived in the world they had made for themselves. Just two short months later on October 11, 1978, they would host a party. Vicious reportedly took Tuinal, a known powerful barbiturate mix, in a high dose. The 30 or so pills caused Vicious to spend most of the party in a drug-induced stupor, nearly comatose while various people filtered through the party. By the morning, his life would be over as he knew it (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               On the morning of October 12, 1978, Sid Vicious found the woman he loved dead on their bathroom floor. When police arrived, Vicious was in a stupor still from the Tuinal he took the night before and confessed to killing Spungen, but later redacted this statement. He gave multiple stories about what happened that night. He said they had fought that night and, while he had stabbed her, he hadn’t meant to kill her. Later, he claimed she actually fell on his knife before finally saying he couldn’t remember the night at all. The knife used to kill Spungen was found to be identical the the “007” flip knife Vicious owned, bought down on 42nd street (Shelton). Vicious was released on bail the same day and attempted suicide, using broken shards of a lightbulb (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”)(Shelton). He was taken in to Bellevue hospital for observation after his attempt, where he attempted to jump out one of the hospital windows. According to witnesses, he was saying, “I want to be with my Nancy” (Shelton).

               In the months leading up to Sid Vicious’s deaths, he did interviews and partied. During one such interview he talked about Spungen’s death and how he felt it was meant to happen. According to Vicious, Spungen had spoken about how she would die before 21 many times. In the same interview, Vicious talked about wanting to be “under the ground,” a statement that likely gives insight into his mental state at the time. In December of 1978, Vicious got in a fight with Todd Smith, the brother of Patti Smith, and ended up spending 55 days in Riker’s prison for detox (Shelton).  In February of 1979, Vicious was released from Riker’s and decided to throw a celebration. It was meant to be a celebration of his freedom, but in the end it was more of a going away party. Vicious sent his mother to get the heroin he wanted for his celebration, and on February 2, 1979, Sid Vicious was found dead from a heroin overdose (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               Anne Beverly claimed that she found a letter from Vicious after his death, stating, “We had a death pact, and I have to keep my half of the bargain. Please bury me by my baby. Goodbye.” Debbie Spungen, Nancy’s mother, also received a letter from Vicious after her daughter’s death that spoke of a death pact between the two. According to the letter, the two had planned to due in each other’s arms, Vicious promising Spungen he would kill himself if anything ever happened to her (Maloney). Beverly claimed that Spungen’s death was actually suicide, and Vicious’s death was the completion of their pact, and she isn’t the only one who feels this was part of the story. Howie Pyro, Vicious’s friend and the guitarist for D Generation, has also spoken about the death pact. He believes that Spungen stabbed herself, though not necessarily in a suicide attempt. As she had faked a suicide attempt before for Vicious’s attention, he has stated he believes she stabbed herself in an attempt to get his attention again. Unfortunately, if this is the case, Vicious was far too drugged to have come to her aid (“Sid And Nancy: A Punk Rock Murder Mystery”).

               There are more theories about what actually happened that night. The obvious one is that Vicious did kill Spungen, though whether by accident or on purpose is up for debate. Other theories state that Spungen was a victim of a robbery gone wrong, possibly from drug dealers. A friend noted that large amounts of money were missing from room 100 after the party that fateful night, but this has never been confirmed by investigators. Phil Strongman proposes in his book, Pretty Vacant: A History of Punk, that Rockets Redglare was the killer (Shelton). Strongman isn’t the only person who believes this, despite the fact that Redglare insisted until the day he died in 2001 that he was not involved in Spungen’s death. Redglare sometimes worked as Vicious’s bodyguard and was known to have gotten the couple drugs on occasion. The theory goes that he was at the party that night and Spungen asked him to get more drugs and he found the couple unconscious when he returned. At the time, Vicious had a lot of money coming in from royalties related to a cover of Frank Sinatra’s My Way he had released, which could have been tempting to take when the couple were both out cold. Those who believe Redglare was involved believe he had decided to take some of this money and gotten into a fight with Spungen when she woke up during the burglary, resulting in her death. Redglare blamed another dealer, known only as “Michael,” who was never followed up on, and maintained his innocence from both the murder and the burglary until his death (“Sid And Nancy: A Punk Rock Murder Mystery”). Those who believe Vicious wasn’t the killer point to his physical state at the time, wandering in a drug-induced stupor. They believe he couldn’t have possibly killed Nancy Spungen (“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”).

               After Sid Vicious’s death, the investigation into Nancy Spungen’s death was dropped by investigators as they believed he was the killer. To this day, many in the punk scene believe he was set up and that someone else, perhaps even an officer, was holding the knife the night Spungen died (Shelton). At the time of his death, Sid Vicious was 22-years old, and Nancy Spungen was only 20 at the time she died. Spungen’s family did not give Anne Beverly permission to spread her son’s ashes on Spungen’s grace, but some claim she did so anyway. Others claim she dropped his urn in a Heathrow terminal, where his ashes were sent into the air vents and throughout the terminal (Maloney).

               Officially, the story of Sid Vicious and Nancy Spungen is a tragedy with a mysterious end. It is likely that we will never have answers as to what really happened that night in room 100. Those who were there either won’t talk, can’t remember, or are no longer able to talk. Sid and Nancy will always be remembered as one of great couples of the punk scene in the 1970s. They will always be remembered in romanticized songs and movies, viewed as an almost Romeo & Juliet style romance. Perhaps they even saw themselves as such. What will always be remembered is their whirlwind romance and the haunting words, “I want to be with my Nancy.”

“Sid Vicious And Nancy Spungen: Their Turbulent And Tragic Love Story”. Biography, 2020, https://www.biography.com/news/sid-vicious-nancy-spungen-love-murder.

Shelton, Jacob. “Did Sid Vicious Kill Nancy Spungen? Everything We Know…”. Groovy History, 2020, https://groovyhistory.com/did-sid-vicious-kill-nancy-spungen-sex-pistols.

Maloney, Alison. “How Death Pact Of Sid And Nancy Led To Overdoses, Suicide & Murder In Hotel Room”. The US Sun, 2021, https://www.the-sun.com/entertainment/tv/2537924/sid-vicious-nancy-spungen-sex-pistols-murder/.

“Sid And Nancy: A Punk Rock Murder Mystery”. Crime+Investigation UK, https://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/article/sid-and-nancy-a-punk-rock-murder-mystery.

The Lake Bodom Murders

          In the 2016 film, “Lake Bodom”, a group of teenagers set out to recreate a gruesome unsolved murder by camping in the site it occurred and recreating the night as it was known. While the movie is fiction, the crime they were recreating is unfortunately very, very real (Grey). The murders, known as both the Lake Bodom murders and the Bodominjärvi Murders (“Lake Bodom Murders”), were horrific and remain unsolved.

          The murders occurred on June 5, 1960, at Lake Bodom, near Espoo, Finland. The group of four was composed of two 15-year olds, Maila Björklund and Anja Mäki, and two 18-year olds, Nils Gustafsson and Seppo Boisman. Reportedly, the two young men were dating the two 15-year old girls. What started as a normal camping trip became a nightmare by early morning hours, as three of the four campers were murdered somewhere between four AM and six AM. The single survivor was Gustafsson, who was found unconscious lying on top of the tent with a concussion and fractured jaw (Grey). The bodies were found by Risto Siren at 11 AM, who raised the alarm on the situation. Investigators arrived around noon (“Lake Bodom Murders”).

          The tent was torn from the attack, the three teenage victims bludgeoned and stabbed to death inside. The attack likely occurred from the outside of the tent, explaining the damage done to it. The killer likely never entered the tent at all (“Lake Bodom Murders”). Several objects were taken from the scene, including the murder weapons and the keys to the teenagers’ motorcycles, though the motorcycles were still at the scene (Grey). Among the missing items was also the wallets of the victims and their clothes (“Lake Bodom Murders”). While one murder weapon has been identified as likely being a knife, the weapon that caused the bludgeoning damage is unidentified and neither weapon was ever found. Unfortunately, the initial investigation was botched during efforts to retrieve the missing objects, many of which were never retrieved (Grey).

          The investigators that handled the case were not on the scene until six hours later, and the scene was never cordoned off as it should have been. Soldiers were called in to help search for the missing items, helping to find the clothing missing from the victims as well as Gustafsson’s missing shoes some ways away from the scene. While this was helpful in finding some of the missing items, it lead to contamination of the evidence (Grey).

          An unidentified blond man was seen leaving the scene of the murders by birdwatchers that morning, but who this man was has never been officially identified (Grey). A local fisherman also reported seeing a blond man near the scene, but due to the description being so vague, neither account was followed up on (“Lake Bodom Murders”). There have been other suspects, however. A man who ran a kiosk for camping, who reportedly hated campers and was known to throw rocks at campers and break peoples’ tents, Karl (also named as Valdemar (Eckmeier)) Gyllström, was one of the first suspects. Some of the witnesses identified him as the blond man seen that morning, and Gyllström had reportedly confessed to the murders on several occasions over the years in varying states of inebriation (Grey). According to a neighbor to whom he had confessed, he disposed of the murder weapons by throwing them into a well, which he had filled not long after the murder. Police did investigate the well (“Lake Bodom Murders”). Gyllström was never linked to the crime with evidence and investigators have stated they felt he was an unstable individual and that his confessions couldn’t be taken seriously (Grey). His wife gave an alibi for the night of the murders, but redacted her story on her death bed (“Lake Bodom Murders”). Gyllström died in 1969, drowning in Lake Bodom in what many felt was a suicide due to guilt for the murders (Grey). Officially, Gyllström was never charged and never named officially as a suspect.

          Hans Assmann, a former Nazi and rumored to have once been a KGB agent (Grey), though there is no evidence to prove this (Eckmeier), is another suspect that many point to. Assmann lived near the lake and, on the morning of June 6th, was at a hospital in Helsinki covered in red-strained clothing and with dirty nails. Doctors at the hospital identified the red stained as blood, and later one of the doctors, Dr. Jorma Palo, would write books about Assmann possibly being the killer (Grey). At the hospital, Assmann was reportedly acting suspiciously, aggressively, and anxiously, and even tried to use a fake name (Eckmeier). Assmann was found by one detective to possibly be connected to the murder of Kyllikki Saari in 1953. Despite these things, investigators never seriously investigated Assmann, reportedly because he had an alibi for that night. Some believe his political connections are actually why he was never investigated (Grey). Assman is also suspected in other murders, including a young girl who was run over and two girls who were out camping just like the Lake Bodom victims (Eckmeier).

          Over 40 years after the horrific murders occurred, investigators arrested survivor, Nils Gustafsson. It was a shocking turn of events. New evidence, including DNA and bloodstain analysis, reportedly pointed to Gustafsson, as well as a witness who apparently came forward after 40 painful years of silence (Grey). This witness, however came forward for a television interview, but would not speak with police and the account was not taken as being 100% reliable (“Lake Bodom Murders”). Gustafsson’s trial commenced in August of 2005, where a life sentence was on the table. The prosecution argued that his target that night had been his girlfriend, Maila Björkland, and that the other two victims were murdered to get rid of any witnesses. His injuries that night, according to the prosecution, were due to a fight with Boisman that night and that some had been self-inflicted to deflect suspicion. The story argued by the prosecution also included a half-mile long hike to hide Gustafsson’s shoes as well as the clothing of the victims. This, the defense argued, made no sense when the severity of Gustafsson’s injuries were taken into account. He was too injured to commit the murders, or hike so far (Grey). Unfortunately for Gustafsson, he was initially sentenced, but a year later was acquitted of the charges brought against him (“Lake Bodom Murders”) and received pay from the government for the time he spent in prison during the trial and the emotional damage he sustained during the proceedings (Grey).

          As of now, the case has remained open and unsolved since Gustafsson’s acquittal in 2005 (“Lake Bodom Murders”). Most likely, this case that still divides residents of Finland to this day, will forever remain unsolved.

Grey, Orrin. “Lake Bodom Murders: 60 Years Later, Finland’S Infamous Killings Remain A Mystery”. Https://The-Line-Up.Com, 2020, https://the-line-up.com/lake-bodom-murders.

“Lake Bodom Murders”. Unsolved Crimes, https://solvedandunsolvedcrimes.wordpress.com/2019/08/11/lake-bodom-murders-1960/.

Eckmeier, Allison. “True Crime: Lake Bodom Murders”. Medium, 2017, https://medium.com/@allisoneckmeier/true-crime-lake-bodom-murders-c9070a197de9.

The Lawson Family Murders

               In 1911, Charles Lawson married his wife, Fannie, and the two had eight children together. Their third child, William, died in 1920 at six from illness (Blanco). Six of their seven remaining children died in the horrific murders that became a spectacle in 1929. In later 1929, at Christmas time, Charles Lawson, 43, took his family for a studio photo, an unusual thing for people of their standing to do. Taking a family studio photo was akin to taking a sudden trip to someplace like Disney in modern times – it was expensive, and generally not done by people in the working class. He bought his family new clothes specifically for the occasion (Sutton). At the time, it was unknown as to why he was getting something so expensive done.

               The morning of December 25, 1929, Marie Lawson, 17, woke up early to make her family a Christmas cake. The cake would never be eaten and for years after that Christmas morning, it would be on display and protected under a glass cover after tourists stole raisins from the top of the cake (Sutton). The oldest son, Arthur, 16, was not home, as he had been allowed by Charles to walk to Walnut Cove with a friend to buy ammunition for a rabbit hunt, a popular past time (Spear).  While Arthur was away and Marie was making the infamous cake, the middle daughters, Carrie, 12, and Maybell, 7,  headed out to the home of their Aunt and Uncle, but the two would never arrive (Sutton).

               Charles Lawson was waiting outside by the tobacco barn, a 12-gauge shotgun in hand, and as his daughters passed by he shot them both. To ensure the two were dead, he bludgeoned them before hiding their remains in the barn. From there, he headed to the porch where his wife, Fannie, 37, was sitting. He shot her as well before heading inside where Marie had screamed and his two youngest sons, Raymond, 2, and James, 4, tried to hide. He shot Marie just as he shot his wife and other two daughters before hunting down his sons, bludgeoning them to death as well as their infant daughter, Mary Lou, who was only four months old. An autopsy would later reveal that Mary Lou’s cause of death a skull fracture. Charles maneuvered the bodies, laying them with rocks under their heads and arms across their chests (Sutton).

Following the murders, Charles took the family dogs, Sam and Queen, and retreated into the woods nearby the farm, where he reportedly washed the blood from his hands in a stream (Spear). While people had discovered the murders and were flocking to the scene, Charles was in the wood, pacing around a tree for what could have been hours. A gunshot was heard from the forest by those at the home, and soon after Charles body was found by the tree he had been pacing around (Sutton). In his pocket they found two letters, one saying, “Trouble can cause…” and the other, “Nobody to blame,” written on receipts from a tobacco auction. These letters gave no answers as to why Charles would massacre his family the way he did, leaving 16-year old Arthur alone. Some believe Charles allowed Arthur to leave because Arthur was likely the only one who could have stopped the massacre from continuing (Spear).

At the time, rabbit hunting was a popular past time, which would explain why the sound of gunshot wouldn’t necessarily be alarming in the area. The weather conditions were bitterly cold, the ground covered with deep snow (Spear). Winter is generally harder for people, especially when it is a particularly cold winter. Could the level of cold and snow around at the time have contributed to the actions Charles Lawson took those days? Nearly 100 years later, we likely will never truly know, but speculations abound. In the months leading up to the massacre, Charles was reportedly exhibiting erratic behavior. He had been to his doctor, Dr. C.J Helsabeck, for insomnia as well as severe headaches. Dr. Helsabeck would be in charge of the death inquiries, along with the brother to Sheriff John Taylor, Dr. Spottswood Taylor, who was home for the season from his internship at John Hopkins in Baltimore. The two removed Charles’ brain, which was noted as being smaller and having an underdeveloped central region. Dr. Taylor took the brain, which was preserved in formaldehyde, back to Baltimore for further examination. The current location of the brain, if it is still around somewhere, is unknown (Spear). Charles had also sustained a head injury while digging a ditch several months before he killed his family, which some claim changed him. Despite this, the examinations done on his brain showed no abnormalities (History).

Another speculation, though uncorroborated, is that Charles was a witness to something major. Organized crime has been suggested (Blanco), and it is known that at least one well known member of an organization visited the home after the murders occurred (Spear). This theory claims that Charles didn’t commit the murders or die by suicide. Instead, Charles was framed for the murders and set up after he was killed as well (Blanco).

In the 1990s, decades after Arthur Lawson unfortunately died in a car accident in 1945, the possible motivation behind the murders was finally revealed. Stella Lawson Boles, cousin of the Lawson children, published a book about the murders. She claimed that her mother and other Lawson women had been heard at the funeral discussing something that Fannie had come to them with concerns of before that Christmas – she was concerned that Charles and Marie may have been engaging in an incestuous relationship (Sutton). Not only had there been discussions among the Lawson women at the time, but Jettie Lawson, who died in 1928, had spoken about the possibility before her death. This points to the possibility that Fannie suspected an incestuous relationship long before the massacre (Blanco).  Furthermore, Marie’s friend, Ella May Johnson, came forward with a claim that Marie was pregnant at the time. She claimed that Marie confided in her that she was pregnant with her father’s child (Sutton). According to Ella May, Charles and Fannie knew that Marie was pregnant with Charles’ child at the time (Blanco). A neighbor, Sam Hill, also came forward with supposed knowledge of incest, though he claimed that Charles had forced himself upon his daughter, and threatened Marie, after she became pregnant, that “there would be some killing done” should anyone find out (Sutton). Despite these claims, however, there are no records showing a pregnancy in her autopsy (Spear).

Charles brother, Marion Lawson, opened the house as a tourist attraction shortly after the murders, claiming the money was going to Arthur to pay the mortgage on the farm. The cake Marie made that Christmas was put on display, a macabre reminder of what should have been a normal Christmas morning. After the raisin decorations on the cake began to be taken by tourists, the cake was protected with a glass cover (Blanco). The rooms were left as they were when the murders occurred – bloody and dirty – for the authenticity (Spear).

The family was buried in a mass grave, dug by family and friends, in seven caskets, despite there being eight victims. The youngest victim, four-month old Mary Lou, was buried in her mother’s casket, wrapped up in her mother’s arms (Spear).  

History, Unmasked. “Bloody Christmas Of 1929: The Lawson Family Massacre”. Unmasked History Magazine, 2019, https://unmaskedhistory.com/2019/12/22/bloody-christmas-of-1929-the-lawson-family-massacre/.

Sutton, Candace. “Lawson Family Christmas Day Massacre Photo Tells Secret Behind Slaughter”. Newscomau, 2016, https://www.news.com.au/news/secret-behind-photo-in-lawson-family-christmas-day-massacre-when-seven-people-died/news-story/080cd6dcee54a210d70098ca45dc3851.

Blanco, Juan. “Charles Davis Lawson | Murderpedia, The Encyclopedia Of Murderers”. Murderpedia.Org, https://murderpedia.org/male.L/l/lawson-charles-davis.htm.

Spear, Susie. “Lawson Family Murders: A Look Back After 90 Years”. Greensboro, 2019, https://greensboro.com/rockingham_now/lawson-family-murders-a-look-back-after-90-years/article_16aeaae1-5ded-57e8-bde0-35e0d3e69466.html. Accessed 22 Feb 2021.

Lizzie Borden Took An “Axe”

            If you grew up in the United States, or at least in Massachusetts, you’ve probably heard the old rhyme. Even if you don’t know the story of Lizzie Borden, at some point in time, probably on the school yard or in a classroom, you’ve most likely joined in.

Lizzie Borden took an axe,
And gave her mother forty whacks,
When she saw what she had done,
She gave her father forty-one

            The rhyme may change a bit, depending on who you’ve heard it from, but the overall theme is still there, though the facts aren’t quite right.

            The murders occurred on August 4, 1892, in Fall River, MA. Andrew and Abby Borden, the wealthy parents of the now infamous Lizzie Borden, were found separately in their home. Andrew had been attacked so viciously that his face appeared to have nearly been split in half. Abby was found upstairs, dead from a similar attack, and later determined to have been murdered first (History.com Editors 2010). Lizzie raised the alarm, calling for the family maid, Bridget “Maggie” Sullivan, whom had just finished washing the outside windows and laid down. Lizzie had found her father, beaten nearly beyond recognition, on their living room couch. Authorities were quickly alerted, and approximately a half an hour after they arrived and began to investigate, Abby Borden was found. Abby, Lizzie’s step-mother, was found upstairs by a neighbor who had come to comfort Lizzie. Her body was cold, which lead to the belief that she had been killed first, since Andrew was still warm (Linder). We know now, more than a century later, that the rooms in the house had different microclimates that could have explained this. The room Abby was in was several degrees different in temperature from the room Andrew was murdered in, and could have caused Abby’s blood to coagulate faster. The initial estimate of the time window was made based more on the blood coagulation than anything else, and we now know that instead of one-to-two hours, the time window could have been as small as 15-20 minutes (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…).

            It was reported at the time that, while the murder was gruesome, there was no signs of a struggle in the room where Andrew was found. Supposedly a man who worked for Andrew Borden, referred to as a “Portuguese laborer” at the time, was seen visiting the residence the morning of the murder to get his pay. It was believed that Andrew had told the man he couldn’t pay him at the time and to return another time, leading to the murder. Newspapers reported that medical evidence suggested a tall man had attacked Abby Borden from behind, placing suspicion in the man who visited that morning (Linder).

            It didn’t take long for suspicion to fall on Lizzie Borden, who was 33-years old at the time. Only two days after the murders, a clerk at the local drug store S.R. Smith’s, Eli Bence, came forward with information: Lizzie had been at the shop the day before the killings looking to buy prussic acid, also known as cyanide. Lizzie claimed to have little knowledge of her step-mother’s whereabouts after 9 AM, at which time she claimed Abby went upstairs to fix the pillows. She also gave the investigators a story about looking for lead sinkers for a fishing trip in the barn in the backyard during the short period of time Andrew Borden was murdered in. This was considered unlikely, however, as the barn was dusty inside and there were no signs that anyone had been inside recently. It didn’t take long for the intruder theory to be brought into question and for a “leading physician” to speak out. He claimed that the hacking action the Borden’s were subjected to was a sign of a woman who was acting without consciousness (Linder).

At the same time, the Boston Herald began to report on the murder. While the family insisted that Lizzie had a good relationship with Abby, the Herald reported that they frequently fought and hadn’t been speaking for some time. Strangely, while the Herald seemed to be pointing suspicion her way, the writers there seemed to also feel that she was above reproach as she had no history of being unkind in a deliberate manner. Despite this, Lizzie seemed the most likely suspect. Bridget Sullivan was outside washing the windows and her sister, Emma Borden, was not even at the home at the time of the murder. On August 9th, Lizzie, Bridget, and a house guest, John Morse, were questioned in front of the local magistrate Josiah Blaisdell by District Attorney Hosea Knowlton (Linder). Morse had a seemingly strong alibi – he was visiting relatives fairly far from the Borden residence and left early that morning, traveling on a horse car with six priests. The driver of the car was questioned, but couldn’t remember Morse despite remembering the priests. Morse’s relatives confirmed, however, that he was visiting them at the time (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…). Lizzie did so poorly on examination that, two days later after the inquest ended, she was arrested by Police Chief Hilliard. She was taken from Fall River to Taunton, approximately eight miles north of her home town. While she plead “not guilty,” after her preliminary hearing on August 22nd Judge Blaisdell found it likely that she was guilty and she was ordered to appear in front of a grand jury.  (Linder). It is worth noting that Lizzie was under the influence of a double dose of morphine during the inquest, which could explain why she had conflicting answers during her four-hour examination (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…).

The trial was a spectacle. It convened in November and initially the jury was reluctant to bring an indictment, but were reconvened when new testimony was to be given. Family friend Alice Russel, who had stayed with the Borden sisters in the days following the murders, testified that she had seen Lizzie burning a blue dress, which Lizzie claimed was due to the dress being covered in paint. Bridget had testified earlier that Lizzie had worn a blue dress the morning the deaths occurred, and these testimonies combined resulted in an indictment being brought down upon Lizzie Borden. The trial began on June 5, 1893, Lizzie represented by a team of lawyers including Andrew Jennings and George Robinson, who was once the governor of Massachusetts. Representing the state was District Attorney Knowlton and Thomas Moody, who undoubtedly had a case ahead of them proving a woman was capable of such a crime in the Victorian Era (Linder).

The trial began with a show: Moody exposed the skulls of Andrew and Abby Borden accidentally while giving his opening speech, which reportedly caused Lizzie to go “into a feint” which is illustrated in one of the most famous images from the trial (Linder). A hatchet found in the basement, with the handle broken off, was presented as the possible murder weapon by the prosecution. The defense argued that without a handle, the hatchet could not be used as a weapon, and the handle was never found. The hatcher was also sent to Harvard University for analysis, along with a hair on it, but nothing came of it. The hair was from a cow, and when the remaining wood on the hatchet was soaked for blood evidence none was found. One of the judges, as it was a three-judge affair, found Lizzie’s testimony from her inquest was inadmissible, as her attorney wasn’t present at the time she was questioned. Despite this set back, the prosecution was sure they could still win with the testimony from Alice Russel on seeing Lizzie burn the dress. That is, until the defense put Emma Borden on the stand, where she testified that she had told Lizzie to burn an old raggedy dress (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…).

             In total, the trial lasted three weeks. The famous rhyme came to life during those three weeks, and largely framed the case for the public despite the falsities in it. The morning of the final day, Lizzie wept, along with some men in the crowd and possibly even the judges, as she was found not guilty. While the upper class of Fall River seemed relieved that she was acquitted, the working class felt that she had gotten away with murder. Indeed, over a century later most people still believe she got away with the crime (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…). The question remains: what really happened to Abby and Andrew Borden?

            Andrew was known to be a shrewd businessman and was not over well-liked. One speculation is that one of his business contacts could be responsible. Others who feel that Lizzie truly is the murderer have theories of her motives: money, freedom, and hatred. Andrew was a traditional Victorian man and had a great amount of control over Lizzie and Emma, who were both unmarried. He had no known will, meaning Abby would get his fortune should he die before her, and it was known that Lizzie and Emma both wanted to live a more lavish life that they did have the money for. They likely feared Abby getting all of his money if he were to die. After the trial was over, the sisters moved to a house in an area they had desired for some time and lived the lavish life they had wanted (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…).

            There have been other speculations as well, over the years. In recent years people became aware of an unusual thing: on the morning of the murders, the front door was locked from the inside. The door had three locks on it, and usually two of the three locks were left unlocked for Andrew to come home for his morning nap, but on the day of the murders the door was locked. Bridget testified that she remembered hearing Lizzie laughing at her from the stairs as she struggled with the locks, and she was seen leaving the house that night with an unidentified bundle. She was never questioned on this and what the bundle was is unknown. Some believe Bridget may have been involved in the murder, but this is not provable (Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…).

Over a hundred years later, we likely will never know if Lizzie really did commit the murders, or if it was an intruder. What remains is the rhyme we’ve all come to know, and the spectacle left behind still revisited on a regular basis.

History.com Editors. “Lizzie Borden’s Parents Found Dead”. HISTORY, 2010, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/borden-parents-found-dead.

Linder, Douglas. “Lizzie Borden”. Famous-Trials.Com, https://famous-trials.com/lizzieborden.

“Lizzie Borden: The Curious Life And Death Of…”. Smithsonian Channel, 2020.

The Death of JonBenét Ramsey

            JonBenét Ramsey was 6-years old at the time of her unexpected death on December 26, 1996. She was the daughter of John and Patsy Ramsey, and younger sister of Burke Ramsey. John ran the computer systems company Access Graphics, which was later absorbed by Lockheed Martin. Patsy was a previous beauty queen, which was why she so excitedly got JonBenét involved in the child beauty pageant world (Mack, 2020). JonBenét was well known, thanks to her mother, and her death caused a media frenzy.  

            That morning, the Ramsey’s woke up to get ready for the day and Patsy found an unusually long ransom note on the staircase. The note was nearly three pages long and full of superfluous language that is unusual for a ransom note. According to the note, the group who kidnapped JonBenét was a “small foreign faction.” The note claimed she was in their possession and safe, but that they would require the Ramsey’s to follow their instructions in order for JonBenét to live to see 1997. The kidnappers asked for $118,000, $100,000 in $100 bills and $18,000 in $20 bills. They were instructed to put the money in a brown paper bag and wait for a phone call between eight and 10 AM the next day, and to rest well as the delivery would apparently be exhausting. The letter writer claimed that, should they not follow their instructions to a T, JonBenét would be immediately executed and the family would never get her remains for a proper burial. The men reportedly watching her apparently did not like John Ramsey, as warned by the letter writer. They were instructed not to interact with the police or to tell anyone what was happening, including stray dogs and bank authorities. If anyone was contacted or the money was marked in some way, JonBenét would die. The writer signed off the letter, S.B.C.T (CNN 2006).

            Despite what the letter said, Patsy Ramsey immediately called both the police and family friends to assist in the search for her younger daughter. By six that morning the police had arrived; reportedly they found no evidence of forced entry upon their arrival. Mistakes were made, however, in preserving he crime scene. While JonBenét’s room was closed off, the rest of the house was open for friends and family to go through, resulting in the crime scene being contaminated. By one that afternoon, the family was understandably getting agitated and an officer suggested that John Ramsey search the house with a family friend to look for any possible evidence. The two immediately headed to search the basement, where they made the brutal discovery of JonBenét’s dead body. She was found with duct tape over her mouth and white cord wrapped around her neck and wrists in a makeshift garret with part of a paintbrush, and some reports say she was found with a white blanket over her torso (Crime Museum 2020).  John brought her body upstairs, where he removed the duct tape from her mouth and, according to some, covered her body with the white blanket against the officers’ orders. This contaminated her remains, compromising any evidence that may have come her. For many, this was seen as extremely suspicious and fueled rumors that JonBenét was being abused by her parents (Mack 2020).

            JonBenét’s cause of death was determined to be asphyxiation from strangulation and a small fracture was present on her skull. While it is believed that she was likely sexually assaulted before or after her death, no seminal evidence was found but her genitals had been wiped clean. There was, however, drops of blood found on her underwear. She had pineapple in her stomach that must have been eaten that night, and while Patsy and John didn’t remember giving her any, a bowl was found in the kitchen with pineapple and Burke’s fingerprints on it. It is worth noting here that, while fingerprints can tell us someone was there, we cannot attach a timetable to fingerprint evidence the way we can other pieces of evidence, so the time that Burke got the pineapple can’t be determined. The Ramsey’s maintain that Burke was asleep in his room the entire night (Crime Museum 2020).         

            The case gained national attention. The family quickly came under suspicion, and their behavior unfortunately fueled much of the suspicion. The initial interviews with the immediate family members of JonBenét were delayed, allowing time for a story to be developed should they have been involved in the crime.  Many believed, and some still do, that the ransom note was staged, partially due to the unusual length of the note. It was determined that the stationary used belonged to Patsy, as did the pen used to write it. Handwriting samples were taken from each family member, but the results remain murky. While some believe that Patsy Ramsey had to have been the writer, others believe the handwriting analysis was inconclusive or entirely exonerated her. The note drew more suspicion to the family when it was learned that the amount asked was the exact amount that he received in a bonus that year. The family was fairly reluctant to work with the police during the investigation, later stating that they were hesitant to work with police out of fear that they would be framed just to have the case solved (Crime Museum 2020). The paint brush used in the makeshift garret was from Patsy’s art kit. Some theorize that Patsy, either from jealousy over JonBenét’s success in beauty pageants or anger over the fact that she was a chronic bed wetter, may have lost her cool and smashed her head into a hard surface. Burke was enough older and bigger than his younger sister and would have been able to overpower her, and if he had accidentally killed his sister, it would explain the somewhat unusual behavior of his parents (Mack 2020). The Ramsey’s refused to submit to more interviews in January of 1998 unless they could view the evidence police had collected (Research 2020). In 1999, a Colorado grand jury voted to indict the Ramsey’s on child endangerment and obstruction of a murder investigation charges, but the case was never prosecuted. The prosecutor felt the evidence in the case did not sufficiently meet the reasonable doubt standard and chose not to go through with the case (Crime Museum 2020). Patsy Ramsey died of ovarian cancer in 2006, never knowing who killed her daughter (Research 2020). CBS aired a special in 2016, The Case of JonBenét Ramsey, which led many to believe that Burke was the one that killed his sister. He brought a $750 million defamation suit against CBS that was settled out of court in 2019 (Crime Museum 2020).

            Some theorize that the killer was an intruder, who’s footsteps were disguised by the rugs in the house. A boot print that could not be linked to any of the family members was found next to her bed, leading to the belief that she was likely taken from her bed. When the basement was searched and investigated, a broke window was found that is thought to have been an entry point for an intruder. On top of that, the blood drops in her underwear belong to an unknown male, not the men in her family (Crime Museum 2020). Gary Oliva was arrested in Boulder, Colorado on drug charges in 2000.  Oliva was a known sexual predator, but DNA cleared him of the Ramsey murder. He continued to terrorize Boulder after his release until he was arrested again on two counts of exploitation of a minor, specifically child pornography. In 2006, school teacher John Karr confessed to the murder while in Thailand. While his confession was vivid and horrific, it became quickly clear that it was nothing more than fantasy concocted based on what information available to the public. Karr was not the killer, though he was a pedophile obsessed with JonBenét (Mack 2020). He claimed that her death was an accident, caused after he drugged. His claims were discarded when it was learned that there were no signs of drugs in her system at the time of her death and his DNA was found not to match the DNA from her underwear, which was added to CODIS in 2003 (Crime Museum 2020). The Santa that worked the Ramsey party the night before the murder has also been suggested by some, but was never formally accused of the murder. He claimed to have a special relationship with JonBenét, referring to her as his “special friend.” He had a tube of gold glitter that she gave him as a gift, which is presumed to have been mixed into his ashes when he passed away in 2002 (Mack 2020).

            In 2006, a new district attorney, Mary Lacy, was appointed to the case. DA Lacy made a public apology to the Ramsey’s in 2008 when she was profiling the DNA evidence. The case was officially reopened in 2010, with a focus on DNA evidence this time. The DNA evidence was sent to the Colorado Bureau of Investigation with hopes that newer, stronger methods would yield better results in 2016 (Crime Museum 2020). As of now, no new evidence has been made public. JonBenét’s death still remains a mystery, and the noise surrounding her murder has only made it harder for investigators to figure out what happened. The trial by media the family had to endure convinced many that they must have been at fault, while the evidence points towards the actions of an intruder in the household on the night of her murder. As it stands, only the evidence that may someday come from the DNA sent to the Colorado Bureau of Investigation may finally give the family and the public the answers being looked for since 1996.

Crime Museum. 2020. Jonbenét Ramsey – Crime Museum. [online] Available at: <https://www.crimemuseum.org/crime-library/cold-cases/jonbenet-ramsey/&gt; [Accessed 24 December 2020].

Research, C., 2020. Jonbenet Ramsey Murder Fast Facts. [online] CNN. Available at: <https://www.cnn.com/2013/08/29/us/jonbenet-ramsey-murder-fast-facts/index.html&gt; [Accessed 26 December 2020].

Mack, E., 2020. Jonbenét Ramsey’S Death Is Still An Unsolved Mystery. [online] Rare. Available at: <https://rare.us/people/jonbenet-ramsey/&gt; [Accessed 26 December 2020].

“CNN.Com – Text Of 1996 Jonbenet Ransom Note – Aug 17, 2006”. Cnn.Com, 2006, https://www.cnn.com/2006/LAW/08/16/ramsey.ransom.note/.

The Allenstown Four

In Allenstown, New Hampshire, in 1985, a group of young boys found a 55-gallon metal drum near the local mobile home park, and rolled it around while playing. About 100 yards from where they found it, the drum broke open and the boys left it where it was (Landman 2018). Sometime later on November 10, 1985, a hunter came across the drum in Bear Brook State Park. Upon opening the drum, he found a horrific scene: two bodies, wrapped in plastic and decomposing in the drum. It was a horrific discovery that seemed to get worse as the years went on (Sweeney 2019).

            The bodies recovered from the drum were of an adult woman and a young girl, both determined to have died from blunt force trauma. The woman had wavy brown hair and extensive dental work, including both fillings and dental extractions. The girl was estimated to be between the ages of 5 and 11 years old. She was found with earrings and showed signs of having had pneumonia. The girl also had a gap in her teeth. It was determined that the two died between 1977 and 1985, but the exact year could not be pin pointed. After 18 months waiting for someone to identify the two victims, they were laid to rest in May of 1987. This seemed like it might be the end of the story, as no one had come forward and there seemed to be no leads. However, that changed 15 years later in the year 2000 when another 55-gallon drum was found (Sweeney 2019).

            A detective was examining the original crime scene in 2000, as the case was officially still open, and found the second barrel (Sweeney 2019). This drum had the remains of two young girls, one between one and three years old, and the other between two and four years old. The two were too badly decomposed for a cause of death to be determined (Landman 2018). Through DNA analysis it was determined that the woman was likely the mother of the oldest girl and the youngest girl, but the middle girl was not related to them. Investigators turned to the Bear Brooke Gardens Mobile Home Park near where the bodies were recovered, hoping leads would pop up. What they found was that 476 people had been through the 115-lot park during the years they believed the murders took place, and most of the residents were ex-convicts from the nearby New Hampshire State Prison or transient (Sweeney 2019). Any case with this many people involved becomes increasingly more difficult to solve.

            The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children released new facial reconstructions of the victims in hope that someone would come forward with their identities (Sweeney 2019). Tests were performed on tissue that was able to be extracted from the victims, looking for signs of the environment they had been living in at the time of their deaths. Three of the four victims, the mother and her children, showed signs of living in the area around Allenstown, NH for approximately three months before their deaths, while the fourth victim, the middle girl, showed signs of living further north (Landman 2018) (Sweeney 2019). This was further confirmed in 2015, when Senior Assistant Attorney General Ben Agati stated that it was believed they lived in the Allenstown area sometime before their deaths. That same year new sketches were made by forensic artists that better represented what they believed the victims looked like in life (Sweeney 2019).

            Laura Jenson connected the mysterious case to the disappearance of her mother in 1981, Denise Beaudin, in 2016. Her mother had been dating a man who went by Gordon Jenson. Jenson was abandoned in the mobile home park as a child but Gordon Jenson after her mother went missing (Boston 25 News 2019). Investigators reported a suspect, who went by Robert “Bob” Evans while in Allenstown, NH, and had once gone by the alias Gordon Jenson, in 2017. Evans/Jenson died in jail in 2010, after being sentenced for the murder of his wife at the time, chemist Eunsoon Jun. At the time, Evans/Jenson’s actual name was not known, but the renewed interest in the murders of the Allenstown Four eventually lead to his DNA being tested. Surprisingly, this led to the fourth victim being at least partially identified: Evans/Jenson was her biological father. Outside of the DNA, circumstantial evidence also connected him to the Allenstown area. As Robert Evans, he had worked as an electrician at the local mill at the time of the murders, for a man who owned property near where the drums were discovered. The drums could also have been sourced from that mill (Sweeney 2019).

 It was August of 2017 that investigators were able to release his real name: Terrance “Terry” Rasmussen (Sweeney 2019). Rasmussen is known to have used at least three aliases – Robert Evans, Gordon Jenson, and Curtis Mayo Kimball (Boston 25 News 2019). It is believed that Rasmussen killed at least six people – Beaudin, who is officially still missing, Jun, and the Allenstown Four.  Rasmussen is known to have had a disturbing pattern, and may have been a true serial killer. Rasmussen would pose as a single father to attract women, particularly women with children. He would start dating the women he would find, molest their children, then possibly murder them (Landman 2018).

There was a major break in the case in 2019. On June 6th, investigators announced that three of the four victims had been successfully identified. The woman and her daughters were identified as Marlyse Elizabeth Honeychurch and her daughters, Marie Elizabeth Vaughn and Sarah Lynn McWaters. The family was last seen alive at family Thanksgiving in 1978, in La Puenta, CA. At the time, Honeychurch had been reportedly dating Rasmussen and he had joined her and her children for the trip. That night Honeychurch got into an argument with her mother, and after leaving with Rasmussen and her children, none of them were seen again (Sweeney 2019).

The true identity of Rasmussen’s daughter, the fourth victim, remains unknown. Her mother has not been found, and some speculate that she may be another of Rasmussen’s victims. If you or anyone you know believes you may know who this poor child was, or perhaps know who her mother may have been, please reach out to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children at 1-800-THE-LOST or email the state cold case unit, coldcaseunit@dos.nh.gov (Sweeney 2019). Any credible information could help investigators finally have a name for the poor little girl likely murdered by her own father.

Landman, Hugh. “Mysterious Facts And Theories About The Allenstown Four.” Ranker. N.p., 2018. Web. 28 Nov. 2020 . <https://www.ranker.com/list/facts-and-theories-about-the-allenstown-four/hugh-landman&gt;.

Staff, Boston. “Allenstown, NH Murder Victims Identified After Nearly 40 Years.” WFXT. N.p., 2019. Web. 27 Nov. 2020 . <https://www.boston25news.com/news/allenstown-nh-murder-victims-identified-after-nearly-40-years/955952833/&gt;.

Sweeney, Gary. “Allenstown Four: The Decades-Long Mystery Of The Bear Brook Murders.” https://the-line-up.com. N.p., 2019. Web. 27 Nov. 2020 . <https://the-line-up.com/bear-brook-murders-allenstown-four&gt;.

The Mysterious Death of Amanda Tusing

            Amanda Tusing left her fiancé of three months (News 2007), Matt Ervin’s, house at 11:30 PM on Junge 14, 2000. It was storming outside, the night darkened by the clouds and rain on the road as the 20-year old drove from Jonesbro, AR towards her home in Dell, AR. When Tusing had not called Ervin to let him know she was home by 1:30 AM, the search for Amanda Tusing began (Jones 2017).

            Ervin contacted Tusing’s mother, Susan Tusing, hoping she had heard from her daughter. Upon finding out that Tusing had never made it home, Ervin left from his home heading the same way that Tusing would have headed. From Dell, AR, Tusing’s father, Ed, and twin brother, Andy, both headed in the direction leading to Ervin’s house in hopes that one of them would find Tusing (Jones 2017). Tusing was not found, but her car, a 1992 black Pontiac Grand Am (News 2007), was found west of Monette, AR, on highway 18 AR (Jones 2017), and five miles east of St. Francis Bridge (News 2007). Her keys were still in the ignition, her wallet and cell phone were on her seat (Jones 2017), the windshield wipers were half up and her favorite radio station was playing (News 2007).

            Tusing remained missing for a couple more days, until Father’s Day, June 18, 2000. In Big Bay Ditch, just north of Lake City, AR, off of AR Highway 135, Tusing’s remains were found (Jones 2017). She was found west of her car, despite the fact that she had been heading east (News 2007).  An investigation into her death was opened, lead by Sheriff Jack McCann and veteran officer Gary Etter. The case has been a frustration since day one, with the massive rains the night of her murder washing away crucial evidence. Ervin was questioned at the time, but was cleared after passing three polygraph tests. Frustration mounted, understandably, as there was no physical evidence and no obvious motives or suspects (Jones 2017).

            The autopsy of Tusing didn’t help much. The only injury found on her was a bruise on the back of her head, otherwise there were no injuries. There were no signs of sexual assault and the cause of death was sited as drowning (Jones 2017). However, investigators believe she was dead before ending up in Big Bay Ditch, as water was found in her nasal passages, but not in her lungs. Those that believe she died before ending up in the water believe she was suffocated, not drowned (News 2007).

            Evidence has come in over the years. Names were brought to investigators in 2003, though those names have not been made public (Kait8 2003). In 2007, an anonymous individual came to the sheriff’s department and reported a conversation they heard that pertained to the murder of Amanda Tusing. Etter believes that talking with known criminals could open the case up, as he believes criminals talk to each other and that the killer could have talked to someone. Susan Tusing, however, thinks differently. Susan believes that Tusing’s car was their best clue to what happened to her. She’s said before that she thinks it could have been a member of law enforcement, who pulled Tusing over, or someone pretending to be an officer (News 2007). When investigators were asked, in 2003, if the evidence that came with the names brought to them ruled out or implicated any members of law enforcement, the answer given was that they were almost certain the murderer is not an officer. That said, the possibility had not been entirely dismissed as of 2003 (Kait8 2003).

            As of 2020, the murder of Amanda Tusing has not been solved. Suspects have not been named, little evidence has been found, and her official cause of death has been placed as drowning. Matt Ervin was cleared back in 2000, and has not been brought back in as a suspect. The Tusing family has not gotten answers in the 20 years since Amanda Tusing died. They have laid her to rest, but no answers have been found. All the evidence available, thanks in part to the storm raging the night of the murder, is the water in her nasal passages, the bruise on the back of her head, and the state her car was left in. Hopefully, someday soon, the Tusing family will have answers and finally be able to find some level of peace.

Jones, J., 2017. Why Mandy? A Case Of A Murder Without Motive Part II – AY Magazine. [online] AY Magazine. Available at: <https://www.aymag.com/why-mandy-the-case-of-a-murder-without-motive-part-2/&gt; [Accessed 13 November 2020].

News, A., 2007. New Clue In Unsolved Midwest Murder. [online] ABC News. Available at: <https://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/story?id=3288735&page=1&gt; [Accessed 14 November 2020].

 https://www.kait8.com. 2003. New Details In Tusing Murder Case. [online] Available at: <https://www.kait8.com/story/1374330/new-details-in-tusing-murder-case/&gt; [Accessed 15 November 2020].

Ronald Clark O’Bryan: The Man Who Killed Halloween

            We’ve all heard the old something being in our Halloween candy growing up. Razor blades and needles were the regular fears of parents and children, but poison has had its place as well. It is perhaps this urban legend that inspired Ronald Clark O’Bryan in 1974. His actions shook the nation and the ripple effects are still being felt in 2020.

            On October 31, 1974, an emergency call was answered to the O’Bryan residence in Deer Park, TX for a young boy, Timothy, having strange symptoms. The young boy, only 8-years old, had begun complaining about stomach pains just as he was going to bed before vomiting and collapsing, beginning to convulse. Timothy passed away on the way to the hospital, and the investigation into what happened began (Ponti, 2020). What had happened to this young boy? Why had he gone from totally healthy to dying within moments? It didn’t take long for investigators to find out.

            The day had already seen something unusual: O’Bryan was uncharacteristically excited for Halloween, which he historically had little-to-no interest in. He insisted on taking his kids out trick-or-treating, despite the slight rain, with family friends Jim Bates and his two children. While the group was out, one house didn’t open their door, likely because the family was not home. O’Bryan stayed behind while the rest of the group moved on, seemingly to wait and see if the people in the house would answer. He rejoined the group not longer after with five giant Pixie Stix that he claimed the house had been giving out. After returning home, he handed four of the large candies to the kids that had joined them trick-or-treating and gave the fifth away to a trick-or-treater at their door (Ponti 2020). The first sign that something was wrong was when Bates’ son went to eat his giant Pixie Stix and O’Bryan reportedly leaped across the table to stop him from eating the tainted treat (Glenn and RENDON, 2020).

            That night, O’Bryan let his kids choose one piece of candy each to have before bed time. Timothy chose, under the urging of his father, his giant Pixie Stix (Glenn and RENDON, 2020). Timothy didn’t eat much of the Pixie Stix, complaining that it tasted strange, to which O’Bryan gave him some Kool-Aid to wash the treat down. It was within moments that Timothy began to complain about severe stomach pains, soon enough vomiting and convulsing. Timothy O’Bryan died on the way to the hospital, less than an hour after ingesting merely a portion of the Pixie Stix. Before the autopsy even began, the coroner knew that Timothy had somehow ingested a deadly poison – specifically cyanide. The coroner noted the smell of almonds from Timothy’s mouth, a scent associated with the poison. It was revealed in the actual autopsy that poor Timothy had ingested enough potassium cyanide to kill two-to-three adults (Ponti 2020).

            The police jumped into action, quickly collecting the other Pixie Stix from the other children. Horrifyingly, one of the young boys who had received the Pixie Stix was found asleep in bed, curled up with the unopened treat. Luckily for the young boy, he had not had the strength to get through the staples on the Pixie Stix (Glenn and RENDON, 2020). After the offending candy was retrieved, investigators found that the first two inches of each Pixie Stix was replaced with potassium cyanide. Had that young boy been able to get through those staples, he would have died just as quickly as Timothy O’Bryan did (Ponti 2020). It is believed that his initial plan had been to poison other children as well as his son, possibly to disguise what he had done (Blanco, n.d).

            O’Bryan was immediately under suspicion. He and Bates were asked to retrace their steps by investigators, and O’Bryan seemed to have a hard time remembering which house he claimed to get the Pixie Stix from. O’Bryan’s conflicting accounts were suspicious, and even worse, when he finally chose a house, the occupants proved they hadn’t been giving out giant Pixie Stix. It didn’t take the investigators long to find out what the possible motive for hurting the young boy was, and it wasn’t a stranger as O’Bryan wanted them to believe. While Ronald O’Bryan was described by others as a “good Christian man” and “an above-average father.” He was a deacon at the local Baptist Church and sang in the choir. Socially, O’Bryan seemed to be a good man. Looks, however, are not always as they seem. It turned out O’Bryan, who took home approximately $150 a week in pay, was over $100,000 in debt. The pay he received barely made covered his bills and food for this family as it was, but the debt undoubtedly made this worse for him (Ponti 2020).

            In the 10 years leading up to the murder of Timothy O’Bryan, Ronald O’Bryan held and was fired from 21 jobs. Each job fired him for either negligence or fraud, and the job he was working at the time was almost over as well. Texas State Optical was on the verge of firing O’Bryan on suspicion that he was stealing from the company. It seems O’Bryan may have been at the end of his rope when he chose to kill his son, after taking out several life insurance policies on his children (Ponti 2020). In the days leading up to Halloween, O’Bryan had been practically bragging to coworkers that his financial situation was going to improve soon (Glenn and RENDON, 2020). Regular customers whom he knew worked with chemicals said he had been asking them about buying cyanide and making jokes about how much it would take to kill someone (Ponti 2020).

            The O’Bryan house was soon being searched for evidence. The tape from an adding machine, which was a precursor to the calculator usually used for bookkeeping, was found in the house with all of the bills O’Bryan owed totaled on it. The total just so happened to be exactly the amount he was going to get from the life insurance policies he had taken out on Timothy. A pocket knife was found in the home that had candy residue on it, believed to be the knife O’Bryan used to open the Pixie Stix before replacing the candy with the potassium cyanide. These pieces of evidence combined with the testimony of the coworkers and customers previously mentioned, lead to the arrest of Ronald Clark O’Bryan on November 5, 1974. O’Bryan was subject to, and failed, a polygraph test, which at the time was considered more telling than it is today. Before his arrest, O’Bryan had played the grieving father as best as he could for those around him, despite knowing the true horror he had committed (Ponti 2020).

            The prosecutors for the O’Bryan trial were Victor and Hinton Discroll, who relied mostly on physical evidence as well as testimony from coworkers and others who knew O’Bryan. During their investigation they learned that O’Bryan had taken classes at the local college, Harris County Community College, and had asked one of his professors about poison on animals. There were also pieces of plastic found in the O’Bryan house that were from the Pixie Stix, likely from when he replaced some of the candy with the potassium cyanide (Blanco, n.d.). On June 5, 1975, Ronald Clark O’Bryan was found guilty of the murder of 8-year old Timothy O’Bryan and sentenced to death (Ponti 2020). It took the jury less than an hour to find him guilty, and just a little over an hour to sentence him to death (Glenn and RENDON, 2020). Ronald Clark O’Bryan may be long passed now, but the memories of what he did remain alive in the urban legends that may have inspired him decades ago.

            O’Bryan, dubbed “Candy Man,” filed appeals over the years, including one instance that made it to the Supreme Court. His appeals were all lost, and on March 31, 1984, Ronald O’Bryan’s death sentence was carried out via lethal injection (Glenn and RENDON, 2020). His time of death was called at 12:48 AM (Blanco, n.d.).

Ponti, C., 2020. A+E Networks UK. [online] A+E Networks UK. Available at: <https://www.aetv.com/real-crime/the-man-who-killed-halloween&gt; [Accessed 31 October 2020]. October 31, 1974

Glenn, M. and RENDON, R., 2020. ‘Man Who Killed Halloween’ Still Haunts Holiday. [online] Chron. Available at: <https://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Man-Who-Killed-Halloween-still-haunts-holiday-1971811.php&gt; [Accessed 31 October 2020].

Blanco, J., n.d. Ronald Clark O’bryan | Murderpedia, The Encyclopedia Of Murderers. [online] Murderpedia.org. Available at: <http://murderpedia.org/male.O/o1/obryan-ronald-clark.htm&gt; [Accessed 30 October 2020].

The Snapchat Murders

            In 2017, teenagers Liberty German, 14, and Abigail Williams, 13, best of friends, met an unexpected and horrific end in Delphi, Indiana. German was able to catch their possible killer on video on her Snapchat, including possible audio of him, yet the case remains unsolved. What happened to two young girls that night in 2017?

            German and Williams did everything together – volleyball, softball, saxophone, social media. Everything, they were seemingly inseparable. On February 13, 2017, they once again were doing something together: taking a walk on the Delphi Historic Trail and posting on Snapchat. German’s older sister, Kelsi, had dropped the two off at the trail, which they were familiar with and was not far from home, around 1:30 PM and her father, Derrick, was to pick them up around 3:15 PM. Shortly before their estimated time of death, they posted pictures of a bridge on Snapchat. The same bridge, the Monon Bridge (Shapiro 2020) appears in a video found on German’s phone. The video features a man walking towards them, wearing a blue jacket, jeans, a brown hoodie, and a hat, with his head down. He speaks in the video, in a manner that reportedly sounds like an order,

            “Guys, down the hill” (Harding 2019).

            When German’s father arrived to pick the girls up, he attempted to call German’s phone. When there was no answer and no contact by 4 PM, he attempted to contact other friends and relatives that the girls could have gone to. By 5: 30 PM, the Carroll County Sheriff’s department was alerted to the missing teenagers. The initial worry was they had gotten lost or hurt, or perhaps both, and couldn’t find their way out. To family and friends, that seemed the most likely explanation for their sudden disappearance. Neither girl was known to be anything but good kids, and they wouldn’t have just taken off without notice. During the search of the area the ensued, when police began to search the river with flashlights, Williams’s mother, Anna, remembers telling them “We are not looking for bodies, we are looking for two grounded little girls” (Harding 2019). The search was officially suspended at midnight, due to the apparent lack of evidence of foul play, but the families continued searching through the night (Townsend 2019).

            Unfortunately for the German and Williams families, Valentine’s Day 2017 was not an occasion full of love. It was the day they received the worst possible news – the girls had been found, dead, by the trail (Harding 2019). A single shoe had been found, and not far from the shoe, the girls were found as well (Townsend 2019). The area their remains were recovered from was a significant distance, several hundred yards, from the Monon Bridge, where they had posted their Snapchats from the day before. The details of how the girls were found have not been released, as well as what their cause of death is. Why? One simple reason – if no one knows how they died, then only the killer knows (Shapiro 2020). Investigators can use this information to their advantage in cases of possible false-confessions.

            Soon after the girls were found, the grainy images of the main suspect, the man on the bridge, were released to the public. Along with the images, the audio clip of the man talking was released as well. Hopefully, if this man is the killer, someone recognizes him from either the photos or his voice. Since it has been three long years since the images and the audio were released, some believe that someone out there absolutely knows who the killer is and is staying quiet for some reason. It’s possible that someone knows and is too scared to come forward, or has been threatened by the killer. In 2019, a sketch of another suspect was released as well (Shapiro 2020).  That January the arrest of a sex offender, who’s social media evidently seemed to be a chronicle of his crime, caught the attention of people interested in the case. The new sketch was released a few months later along with more audio from German’s phone that could help lead to the killer. In an interview, Indiana State Police Superintendent Douglas Carter seemingly spoke directly to the killer. He believes the killer must be nearby – perhaps living or working there, or perhaps someone who regularly visits the small town. Carter believes it is likely that the killer or someone close to them has been interviewed at some point in relation to the murders – they just need to be found (Townsend 2019).

            Three years and over 40,000 tips that lead nowhere later, the girls have been laid to rest while their families still search for answers. The audio and images are available online for people to view, and hopefully someday, someone who knows something will come forward. Hopefully, someday the families can at least get the comfort of knowing whoever did this is not out there, possibly hurting other children. Until then, the case will remain unsolved, and the evidence is out there that could lead to the killer’s arrest.

Harding, N. (2019, September 29). Why have police not found man who teens filmed before their murder? Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/10008017/snapchat-murder-mystery-teens-girls/

Shapiro, E. (2020, February 13). ‘Epitome of evil’: Delphi double murder still a mystery 3 years later. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://abcnews.go.com/US/epitome-evil-delphi-double-murder-mystery-years/story?id=68297146

Townsend, C. (2019, May 30). The Delphi Snapchat Murders: Who Killed Abby Williams & Libby German? Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.investigationdiscovery.com/crimefeed/id-shows/still-a-mystery/still-a-mystery-delphi-snapchat-murders-abby-williams-libby-german

The Bender Family Murders

            After the Homestead Act of 1862, the Osage were forced to move from their land, now known as Labette County, Oklahoma, and settlers from Europe came to live where the displaced tribe was forced from. Years later, in 1870, the Bender family were one of five families that settled in the area. The Benders settled specifically in a 160-acre plot of land that faced the Osage Trail (Cappello 2019).

            The family were thought to be German immigrants, as the first to arrive at the homestead, John Bender Sr., and John Bender Jr., both had accents. John Sr., approximately 60, had a thicker accent and spoke broken English, while John Jr., approximately 25, spoke English fairly well and had less of an accent. The two built up a cabin and barn and the women of the family arrived in 1871. Elvira “Ma” Bender, John Sr.’s wife, was estimated to be 55-years old and, like her husband, spoke broken English and was apparently rather unpleasant. She earned herself the nickname, “she-devil.” It was the daughter of the family, Kate Bender, approximately 23, that brought people to the property. She was reportedly beautiful and a talented psychic. She spoke fluent English and worked as a healer, though she was self-proclaimed and not trained. Spiritualism was popular at the time, and she would do seminars at the home about it. Kate notably advocated for free love, which was part of the major draw to her and the family (Cappello 2019). The family even took out an ad in Kansas papers, touting “Professor Miss Kate Bender can heal disease, cure blindness, fits and deafness. Residence, 14 miles east of Independence, on the road to Osage Mission. June 18, 1872” (historicalcrimedetective). A curtain was used to split the single room of the cabin to create an area for a general store, kitchen, and dining area. They could sell dry goods to travelers as well as serve meals and offer somewhere to stay for a night. The home became known as the Bender Inn (Cappello 2019).

              The first body as found in May 1871, a man with his skull crushed and his throat slashed, in Drum Creek. The Bender home was not far, just Northwest of the location of the body. More remains were recovered in February 1872, two more men with their skulls crushed and throats slashed. It didn’t take long for the disappearances of travelers on the Osage Trail came to the attention of others and soon the trail was being avoided whenever possible by those looking to pass the area. There were even some groups looking to find who was responsible, often arresting innocent men on suspicion before releasing them later (Cappello 2019).

            The beginning of the end for the Bender family came when Dr. William Henry York was alerted to the discovery of the horses and carriage he lent to a neighbor who was moving from Kansas to Iowa, without the neighbor present. The neighbor in question was George Newton Longcor, who was moving to Iowa with his 18-month old daughter, Mary Ann, after the death of his wife. It appeared that the man and daughter had not even made it out of Kansas, as the horses and carriage were found near Fort Scott, Kansas. In spring of 1873, Dr. York began his search for the Longcor’s. At Fort Scott, he was able to positively identify the horses and the carriage as the ones he lent to the Longcor’s, as well as clothing as being items he knew to belong to them (Cappello 2019). On March 9, 1873, Dr. York left for his home in Independence, Kansas, but unfortunately, he made the fatal mistake on his way home of stopping at the Bender Inn. His friends were sure he would not have disappeared and were certain he must have fallen afoul of some bad folk (historicalcrimedetective). Unfortunately for the Benders, Dr. York was from a prominent family and his brothers, Colonel Ed York and Alexander M. York of the Kansas State Senate, quickly organized a search when they learned their brother was missing (Cappello 2019).

            The search party, which consisted of 75 men, were able to track Dr. York to the Bender Inn in March of 1873. The Benders denied having ever met Dr. York and suggested that he may have met with danger near Drum Creek, where previous victims had been found. John Jr. even claimed that he had been shot at down in the creek around the time of Dr. York’s disappearance. With no evidence to prove that the Benders were involved, the York brothers left the Inn. However, Colonel York found some evidence that lead him back to the Bender Inn, in the form of a woman who had escaped the Inn. Reportedly, Elvira had threatened the woman with pistols and knives while she was staying there and the woman had fled the Inn. When confronted with this information on April 3rd, Elvira pretended she didn’t understand English before she began to yell about the woman cursing her coffee. Elvira was quick to kick Colonel York and his men out, but she had already made a grave mistake: they now knew she spoke English and her true nature (Cappello 2019).

            The communities surrounding the Osage Trail began to grow suspicious that the area was where those responsible for the disappearances were. A public meeting was called in the Harmony Grove schoolhouse, where the community agreed to get search warrants for the properties between Drum Creek and Big Hill Creek. It didn’t take long for the Bender Inn to come under scrutiny, but not from the search warrants. Just a few days later, it came to the attention of the Bender’s neighbors that their farm animals were all dead or starving, and it became obvious after some investigation that the farm had been abandoned (Cappello 2019). It was a search party traveling nearby on April 9 that alerted others to the state of the Bender Inn (historicalcrimedetective). The investigator, Officer Leroy Dick, discovered a disturbing odor coming from a trap door in under the bed that was strangely nailed shut. He sent out a call for a search party and soon enough, hundreds of local arrived ready to search the Bender Inn with pick axes and shovels (Cappello 2019). Other reports claim that the Bender’s took off right after Colonel York and his men left (historicalcrimedetective).

            The smell was coming from clotted blood that had seeped through the floor and trap door and into the soil under the house. No bodies were discovered under the house, so the search expanded to the land. Elvira and Kate had a vegetable garden, and there was where Dr. York’s remains were found. Ten bodies were found in the garden and the well, all killed in the same manner – their heads were all crushed, likely with a hammer, and their throats had been slashed. Unfortunately, 18-month old Mary Ann was also found, and had been buried alive. Several victims had been mutilated, apparently in an indecent manner that suggests possible genital mutilation (Cappello 2019).

            Thanks to survivors of the Bender Inn, we believe we know how they committed their murders. When guests were at the Inn, they would be given the seat of honor at the table. The seat of honor set them with their back right against the curtain that separated the front room from the living area, and right over the trapdoor. While the guest was distracted one of the men would hit them over the head and the women would then slash their throats. After the victim died, they would be dropped through the trapdoor before they were stripped and buried or dismembered. Bullet holes found in the cabin suggested that some victims tried to fight back. The way the Bender’s chose their victims, which seemed indiscriminate, also suggests that they were not after valuables, but simply the thrill they got from killing (Cappello 2019).

            A Bible was found in the cabin with notes in German that named John Jr as one John Gebhardt. The combination of reports from the Bender’s neighbors and the notes in the Bible lead to the theory that John Jr and Kate were not siblings, but actually a couple. Now it is believed that only Elvira and Kate were actually related and that Elvira was from the Adirondack Mountains, born Almira Mark. Almira Mark had multiple children and husbands, who some say died of head injuries. John Sr was probably actually John Flickinger, who immigrated from either Germany or the Netherlands, and Kate was probably actually Eliza Griffith, Elvira’s fifth child (Cappello 2019).

            The Bender’s disappeared, it seems. Senator York and Kansas Governor Thomas A. Osborn offered a reward for the apprehension of the Bender family. While they were able to track wagon tracks from the house to where the horses were abandoned 12 miles from the Bender Inn. Officially, no one from the family was ever seen again. However, rumors and speculation flowed forth. One detective claimed he had followed John Jr. down to the border of Mexico and found that he had died. Another rumor spread that John Jr. and Kate had gone to an outlaw colony near the Texas/New Mexico border, traveling by railroad. Women traveling in pairs were frequently accused of being Elvira and Kate and there were several vigilante groups that claimed, without proof, they had managed to capture and kill the Bender family. In the 1880s an elderly man was arrested for a murder that was committed with a hammer. He reportedly fit the description of John Sr, but died after attempting to escape by cutting his foot off while they waited for information to arrive from Kansas. He was too decomposed by the time the information arrived for an identification to be made. A mother named Elvira was arrested with her daughter, Sarah Elizabeth, in 1889 for larceny and accused of being Elvira and Kate, but the committee from Labette was not able to confidently identify them and they were released (Cappello 2019).

            In the aftermath of the Bender family running, people who knew them were put in danger by those who wanted vengeance for the many deaths that occurred at the Inn. A local grocer who had worked with John Sr and was also a German immigrant. The man was taken by a group of locals from his grocery store and brought into the woods. There, the group tried to force him to tell them what he knew, but he actually knew nothing. Still, they hanged him nearly to death before reviving him to question him again. This continued until they were satisfied that he really didn’t know anything and they left him nearly unconscious in the woods. He did manage to recover (historicalcrimedetective).

            The Bender Family was never found again. To this day, no one knows where they went after they disappeared. No evidence has ever been found. It is unlikely that we will ever have an answer as to where they went. For now, the tale of the Bloody Benders remains one without a true ending.

Cappello, N. (2019, August 22). The Bloody Benders: America’s First Family of Serial Killers. Retrieved October 03, 2020, from https://crimereads.com/the-bloody-benders-americas-first-family-of-serial-killers/

The Family That Murders Together. (n.d.). Retrieved October 05, 2020, from https://www.historicalcrimedetective.com/the-family-that-murders-together/